Site 2.7

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
35 kWp
Average Specific Yield
1164 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
10% to 15%
1.85 ₹/Wp, 0.38 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
4.0 ₹/kWh to 2.6 ₹/kWh


The PV plant is heavily soiled by pollution and bird droppings. Some modules with mechanical damages were detected (broken cells and snail trails). It is recommended to (i) increase the cleaning cycles, (ii) re-sort the modules according to the level of mechanical damage, (iii) install a new earthing system, and (iv) install a weather station or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane to quantify and monitor the Performance Ratio. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 10% and 15%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

The modules are considered heavily soiled. Bird droppings were also found on the modules.
Some modules present snail trails.
Poor management between modules: connected, or gone.
Poor cable labelling.
The labels of the modules are peeling off or already missing.
The lightning protection is installed to close to the system and casts shadow on one module in the mornings. The contact point is rusted.
No weather station was found on site.
The lack of cleaning of the modules has developed hot cells on many modules.

Impact on Performance

Heavy Soiling
Soiling losses were determined to be around 5.64% based on site measurements.
Estimated Loss
≈ 5.64%
Cell Cracks
Based on the number of cracks and corresponding inactive areas, the power loss is not expected to be high.
Estimated Loss
≈ 7%
The underperformance of the measured modules is around 5.9%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 5.9%
Near Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.25%
Inhomogeneous tilt angle
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.2%
Self Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.01%
Deviation from South
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.2%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 21.2%

Proposed Solutions

Cleaning cycles shall be implemented and scheduled based on the results of a soiling study that adjusts the cleaning needs to each season.
A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane, shall be installed to properly determine the performance of the system.
The rusted elements of the grounding shall be substituted, and all the connections have to be done to the grounding hole of the module frame.
The damaged cable protecting tubes shall be substituted.
Change the location of the lightning protection if possible.
Modules with heavy cracks shall be grouped in the same string or at least assigned to one MPPT.