Site 2.2

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
100 kWp
Average Specific Yield
914 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
10% to 15%
1.57 ₹/Wp, 0.12 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
2.1 ₹/kWh to 1.4 ₹/kWh


The PV plant is affected by near shadings caused by nearby trees, buildings, and a water tank; a soiling loss of 1% was determined via IV measurements; some modules present broken front glass, burnt marks and moisture damage; and modules were not properly fixed, and some fixing elements are rusted. It is recommended to (i) carry out a deep cleaning of contaminated modules, (ii) rearrange the strings based on shading categories, (iii) install an irradiation sensor on the tilted plane to compute and check the Performance Ratio, and (iv) replace damaged modules. The estimated production boost caused by the retrofitting actions lies between 10-15%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Module washers, nuts and bolts are mostly rusted.
Burnt cells due to moisture trapping into module.
No module to earth connection.
Modules are not properly aligned on rails/beams.
Snail trails on modules.
Damaged modules with burnt busbars and broken glass are connected to the system.

Impact on Performance

Near Shading
Shading can cause the main impact on the system performance. According to the simulation of the system, the near shading loss accounts for 3%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.02%
Heavy Soiling
Soiling is found on the modules. A soiling loss of 1% was determined from the IV curve measurement, which is likely to cause hot spots in the modules.
Estimated Loss
≈ 1%
The under-performance of the measured modules is around 30.1%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 30.1%
Inhomogeneous tilt angle
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.4%
Self Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.52%
Deviation from South
Estimated Loss
≈ 2.6%
Cell Cracks
Estimated Loss
≈ 5%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 45.64%

Proposed Solutions

The broken/burned modules shall be replaced with new modules.
The wet cleaning cycles shall also be included based on the results of the soiling study.
A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane, shall be installed so to determine the performance of the system.
A re-stringing of the modules from the shaded areas shall be conducted: modules with similar shading conditions shall be installed in the same string or at least assigned to individual MPPTs.
PV modules showing power drops above the warranty conditions shall be replaced. If the replacement is not possible, the modules shall be regrouped in power classes within the same string and assigned to individual MPPTs.