Site 2.13

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
100 kWp
Average Specific Yield
1218 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
10% to 14%
1.25 ₹/Wp, 0.93 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
8.2 ₹/kWh to 5.8 ₹/kWh


The PV plant has several broken or damaged modules. A considerable number of micro cracks and isolated parts were discovered through the electroluminescence sample. Some parts of the substructure are constructed unstable against heavy wind loads. The ventilation of some modules is very insufficient. It is recommended to (i) Improve O&M activities, (ii) reinforce the weak substructure, (iii) install an irradiation sensor, and (iv) replace the broken modules. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 10% and 14%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Poor cable management: Cables and connectors loosely hanging from broken ties; the bending radius of the module cables was not regarded and could lead to power losses and cable breaking; cables run along sharp edges and show damage; and the wiring of the distribution boxes and inverters is not safe or clear. The sheathing of the cables is falling off.
Hotspots due to shading or soiling have been identified.
The grounding of some parts of the installation does not exist.
Some modules have holes and burn marks or delamination.
Footprints were found on modules. This can lead to broken cells and modules.
Some parts of the construction are structurally questionable for wind loads.
Online monitoring unit is burnt due to lightning strike for one year.
Insufficient ventilation of the system is leading to overheated modules.
Some modules are delaminated, which can lead to a drop in performance and hot spots.

Impact on Performance

Near Shading
Parts of the site are affected by close shading. This leads to a reduction in performance and hotspot formation.
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.76%
Cell Cracks
Several modules with broken and inactive cells were found.
Estimated Loss
≈ 7%
Heavy Soiling
The measured soiling loses is 2.5%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 2.5%
The underperformance of the measured modules is around 15%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 15.6%
Inhomogeneous tilt angle
Estimated Loss
≈ 2.67%
Self Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.53%
Deviation from South
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.1%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 30.16%

Proposed Solutions

A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane, shall be installed.
A re-stringing shall be conducted to have shaded modules in the same string or at least assigned to individual MPPTs.
Broken modules should be replaced for new ones to ensure the safety of the site and increase the performance of the system.
The maintanance staff should be trained not to step on the modules.
The cleaning cycle could be improved to decrease the soiling losses.
The poor ventilated modules should be installed with some distance to the roof.
The shading objects on the roof should be removed.
The wide overhanging substructure should be fixed in order to be stable for any storms.