Site 2.48

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
5 kWp
Average Specific Yield
646 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
50% to 55%
8.47 ₹/Wp, 0.00 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
1.3 ₹/kWh to 1.2 ₹/kWh


The plant presents underperformance due to near shading. A string is disconnected due to a burnt connector. The structure disregards the optimal tilt angle. It is recommended to (i) substitute the damaged connector, (ii) restring the shaded and damaged modules, (iii) retrofit the mounting structure, and (iv) install an irradiation sensor on the tilted plane to compute and check the Performance Ratio. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 50 and 55%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Poor cable management: no string labelling was found.
Non-standard cable selection for earth wire.
A string is disconnected due to a burnt string connector that has not been repaired.
Cement deposition was found on a module, which developed a hot cell.
Modules’ structure is bent causing different tilt angle on the same string.
The system disregards the height of the parapet, side rails, and nearby buildings, resulting in shaded modules.
No weather station was found on site.
The system is not facing true South.
IR analysis showed evidence of hot spots possibly caused by near shading objects. EL analysis indicated no sign of PID.

Impact on Performance

Self Shading
According to the simulation of the system, the self-shading losses account for up to 2.1%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 2.1%
Near Shading
According to the simulation of the system, the near shading losses account for up to 3.3%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.3%
Heavy Soiling
The on-site measured soiling losses were estimated in 3% from IV curve measurements.
Estimated Loss
≈ 3%
Cell Cracks
According to the number of cracks discovered via EL imaging; the system is expected to have power losses around 6% due to inactive areas.
Estimated Loss
≈ 6%
The underperformance of the measured modules is around 3.9%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.9%
Deviation from South
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.6%
Disconnected circuits
Estimated Loss
≈ 46.6%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 68.5%

Proposed Solutions

Damaged or burnt connectors must be replaced to increase energy production.
Restringing of the modules in the shaded areas shall be conducted in the following way: modules with similar shading conditions shall be installed in the same string or MPPT.
The whole structure must be retrofitted including the modification of the tilt angle to the optimal (30°), change of the azimuth angle, and, if possible, increased inter row distance.
A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane, shall be installed so to determine the performance of the system.
The whole grounding system shall be retrofitted.
Cables should be tied up among the substructure and have a suitable labelling and UV protection.
A re-sorting shall be conducted to have modules with isolated parts in the same string or at least same MPPT.