Impact on Performance
The losses due to near shadings (trees) could represent 7% less irradiance loss, based on a representative simulation.
The inconsistency in the module tilt angle, combined with the deviation from the optimum azimuth, lead to ca. 3% yield loss from the optimum orientation.
An average soiling factor of 6% was determined from IV curve measurements of sample modules, before and after cleaning.
The PID effect could be responsible for more than 20% of performance losses on system level. Individual module measurements showed nominal power drops higher than 55% (104W) in the modules with negative polarity.