Site 2.47

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
65 kWp
Average Specific Yield
825 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
7% to 10%
1.1 ₹/Wp, 0.00 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
1.0 ₹/kWh to 0.7 ₹/kWh


The PV plant consists of a 46 kWp and a 19.2 kWp system. The latter is shaded by the building of the former. The bigger plant shows design failures such as self-shading, near shading, and inadequate tilt angle. The building services vent directly to a module. Cable management and structure are in poor conditions. It is recommended to (i) retrofit the mounting structure including a tilt angle change, (ii) repair inverter room, (iii) replace damaged modules, and (iv) re-arrange the strings based on the shading. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 7 and 10%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Poor cable management: Labelling of strings is missing, cable conduits are degraded, and the bending radius of the cables was not regarded.
A damaged module is connected to the system, resulting in low generation.
Exhaust ventilation system directly towards a module. This has caused hot cells in the module.
The foundation bolt was missing or fixed incorrectly to the ballast in some tables. The purlins of the structure are deformed. Some elements show rust.
The pyranometer found on site was not properly aligned to the plane of the array, and the ambient probe was not right attached.
An inverter presents evidence of water leakage inside of the room.

Impact on Performance

Self Shading
According to the simulation of the system, the self-shading account for up to 4.7% losses on system level.
Estimated Loss
≈ 4.7%
Inhomogeneous tilt angle
According to the simulation of the system, the deviation of optimal angle (10°) account for up to 3.7% losses on system level.
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.7%
Near Shading
Objects near the modules, such as, water tanks, HVAC units, chimneys, etc. cast shadows over the system, accounting for losses around 5.1%
Estimated Loss
≈ 5.1%
Cell Cracks
Based on the number of cracks and isolated parts discovered during Electroluminescence analysis, the power loss is expected to be around 4%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 4%
The underperformance of the measured modules is around 4.2%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 4.2%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 21.7%

Proposed Solutions

The irradiance sensor shall be installed on the module plane so that the performance of the system can be properly determined.
Broken module should be replaced.
The exhaust ventilation system should be redirected to avoid higher temperature and shading of the module.
A restringing of the modules in the shaded areas shall be conducted in the following way: modules with similar shading conditions shall be installed in the same string or MPPT.
The foundation and fixing method of the mounting structure must be improved.
Rusted elements of the structure should be replaced. To prevent such problems, metal elements can be painted with zinc.
All cables should have a suitable labelling and the UV protection against the weather substituted.
The inverter room should be repaired to avoid water leakage.