Site 2.45

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
6.5 kWp
Average Specific Yield
1052 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
9% to 28%
9.32 ₹/Wp, 0.92 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
15 ₹/kWh to 4.7 ₹/kWh


Cable management on site observed in poor condition. A module with glass breakage was connected to the system. It is recommended to (i) optimize the cable layout, (ii) replace modules with defects, (iii) increase cleaning cycles, (iv) add equipotential ponding and re-do earthing connections, (v) re-sort lower performing modules, and (vi) install a weather station or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 8.8% and 27.8%

Image gallery

Main Findings

Poor cable management: Loosely hanging cables with low bending radius. Missing string labelling at the module end.
Detached cable connectors due to poor crimping.
Damaged connectors found on site.
Modules with damaged frame and backsheet chipping were observed.
Wrong string cable and size used.
Module damage observed due to foreign objects stored under PV tables.
Module to module equipotential bonding missing.
Earthing strips between structures are disconnected or detached.
Module misalignment due to improper structure supports, and misaligned structure posts.
No weather station found on site.
IR analysis reveal presence of warm cells.

Impact on Performance

Heavy Soiling
Based on the IV curve measurements, the soiling loss is estimated to be 6.8%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 6.8%
Cell Cracks
The EL image reveals presence of several cracks and isolated parts indicating issues from transportation or handling. These defects pose severe performance and safety threat.
Estimated Loss
≈ 10%
Based on the IV curve measurements, the estimated underperformance is 65.7% for the measured modules.
Estimated Loss
≈ 65.7%
Near Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.51%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 83.01%

Proposed Solutions

Strings, tables, and inverters should have a suitable labelling (UV-resistant).
The cable layout can be optimized; the minimum cable bending radius is 10x the cable diameter.
The cleaning cycles shall be increased based on the results of a soiling study.
Damaged and detached cable connectors shall be replaced to restore production and safety.
Modules affected by isolated parts shall be ideally replaced since they are significantly underperforming.
Modules with damaged frame shall be replaced.
Foreign objects stored under PV tables shall be removed to prevent further module damage and facilitate easier O&M access.
Module to module equipotential bonding shall be added.
Earthing connections between PV tables shall be re-done.
A re-sorting shall be conducted to have lower performing modules in the same string, or at least the same MPPT.
Structure posts and vertical posts shall be realigned or replaced to reduce module misalignment and improve structure functionality.
A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane shall be installed.