Site 2.40

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
349 kWp
Average Specific Yield
943 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
8% to 12%
0.88 ₹/Wp, 0.13 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
1.5 ₹/kWh to 2.3 ₹/kWh


The system shows design failures such as self-shading, near shading, and inadequate interrow distance and clearance to the floor. Some elements of the structural earthing are corroded. Poor cable management was found. The plant is modestly affected by soiling. It is recommended to (i) retrofit earthing system and cabling management, (ii) restring the shaded and damaged modules, (iii) retrofit the mounting structure, and (iv) increase the cleaning cycles. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 8 and 12%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Poor cable management: no string labelling was found at module level, some cables were found exposed to ambient and degraded, and some cables run through sharp edges.
Inverters are only covered by a small shed and their filters were found soiled.
A module was found with paint, which caused a hot cell.
Some elements of the earthing system were found corroded.
The structure of the modules causes misalignment of the modules, presents short inter-row distance, and leaves a reduced space between modules and roof.
The design of the system disregards the height of the parapet, water tanks, communication towers, and rebars protruding from the roof, resulting in shaded modules.
A module was found with a degraded junction box.
IR analysis showed evidence of hot spots possibly caused by near shading objects. EL analysis indicated no sign of PID.

Impact on Performance

Self Shading
According to the simulation of the system, the self-shading losses account for up to 4.6%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 3.6%
Near Shading
According to the simulation of the system, the near-shading losses account for up to 3.0%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 2%
Heavy Soiling
The on-site measured soiling losses were estimated in 5.4% from IV curve measurements.
Estimated Loss
≈ 4.6%
Cell Cracks
According to the number of cracks and isolated areas discovered via EL imaging; the system is expected to have power losses around 6% due to inactive areas.
Estimated Loss
≈ 6%
The underperformance of the measured modules is around 12.2%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 12.2%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 28.4%

Proposed Solutions

The cleaning cycles shall be increased based on the results of a soiling study that adjusts the cleaning needs to each season.
Shading objects should be removed if possible. Additionally, restringing of the modules in the shaded areas shall be conducted in the following way: modules with similar shading conditions shall be installed in the same string or MPPT.
The whole structure must be retrofitted and, if possible, increased interrow distance.
Include in the O&M practices the cleaning of the ventilation system of the inverters.
The whole grounding system shall be retrofitted.
All cables should have a suitable labelling and the UV protection against the weather renewed.
A re-sorting shall be conducted to have modules with isolated parts in the same string or at least same MPPT.