Site 2.18

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
20 kWp
Average Specific Yield
1159 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
15% to 25%
3.67 ₹/Wp, 0.33 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
2.9 ₹/kWh to 1.7 ₹/kWh


The PV plant is heavily affected by soiling due to the not functioning of a cleaning system. Many of the modules have back-sheet damage. Also, the plant capacity is overestimated by 1kW. It is recommended to (i) replace broken modules, (ii) find another cleaning system as the actual one causes permanent shading on the modules, (iii) install a new earthing system, (iv) install a weather station or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane to quantify and monitor the Performance Ratio, and (v) retrofit the mounting structure. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 15 and 25%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Clamping distance was found not to be appropriate, resulting in micro cracks on modules.
Modules were installed beyond the edge area of the building.
Modules have not been cleaned since commissioning date due to the fact that motors installed for automatic sprinklers have not worked. Heavy soiling observed.
Commissioning certificate mentions 325 Wp panels whereas 315Wp panels were installed.
No earthing connection between modules.
Back-sheet damage on varies modules, bubbles and burned parts were found.
Rusty mounting structure.
Burned connections in Jbox observed.
Bad cable management.
No weather station was identified on site.
Manufacturing defects were found in some modules, the system is not expected to have large power losses due to this issue.

Impact on Performance

Heavy Soiling
The on-site measured soiling losses were estimated in 23%.
Estimated Loss
≈ 23%
Near Shading
Sprinklers were installed above the modules casting permanent shadow.
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.39%
Cell Cracks
Microcracks were observed on EL pictures.
Estimated Loss
≈ 4%
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.68%
Inhomogeneous tilt angle
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.6%
Self Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.02%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 32.69%

Proposed Solutions

Find another cleaning solution for the modules as the implemented sprinklers cast permanent shading. O&M practices with cleaning cycles in a weekly base should be implemented.
A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane, shall be installed so that the performance of the system can be properly determined.
The site should have walkways installed in order to carry O&M activities safely.
In case it is possible, modules that are installed beyond the edge area of the building should be moved in order to reduce the wind loads.
Burned modules should not be connected to the system to avoid further damages. It should be replaced or removed.
Due to the fact that modules have less capacity than the planned, the plant capacity is reduced by 1kW.