Site 2.11

Site ID
Nominal Capacity
30.7 kWp
Average Specific Yield
1253 kWh/kWp
Total Estimated Loss
Possible Gain
5% to 10%
2.5 ₹/Wp, 1.2 ₹/Wp/a
Expenditure / Energy
21.7 ₹/kWh to 10.9 ₹/kWh


The PV plant is heavily affected by soiling and shading. Some of the modules are installed end to end. Footprints on the modules indicate a poor maintenance. Some of the connectors have been found open. It is recommended to (i) replace broken modules, (ii) perform a cabling check, (iii) continuous cleaning of the modules especially the bird drops, (iv) re-string shaded modules, and (v) yearly thermography inspection of the modules. The estimated production boost expected by the retrofitting actions lies between 5 and 10%.

Image gallery

Main Findings

Poor Cable Management, which makes operation and maintenance activities more difficult.
Damaged module by mechanical impact.
PV-Array with disconnected modules is decreasing the system performance.
Labelling of strings are missing, and the UV protection of the cables is not sufficient.
Shoeprints were found on the modules which indicates a poor maintenance handling.

Impact on Performance

Cell Cracks
Isolated parts and micro cracks were found by Electroluminescence analysis.
Estimated Loss
≈ 8%
Heavy Soiling
Modules with heavy soiling, due to poor cleaning and maintenance. Soiling losses were determined to be around 22% based on site measurements.
Estimated Loss
≈ 22%
Near Shading
The front part of PV array is shadowed by trees over one of the roofs of the site, creating a pattern which produces hot cells, impairing system performance.
Estimated Loss
≈ 2.2%
Estimated Loss
≈ 11%
Inhomogeneous tilt angle
Estimated Loss
≈ 0.1%
Self Shading
Estimated Loss
≈ 1.95%
Total Estimated Energy Loss
≈ 45.25%

Proposed Solutions

Missing or disconnected modules should be replaced to achieve the optimal system performance.
The modules with major EL failures can be compared with the manufacture catalogue and if applicable they can be replaced.
The trees surrounding the system shall be trimmed if allowed. Otherwise, a re- stringing of the modules shall be conducted in the following way: modules with similar shading conditions shall be installed in the same string or at least assigned to one MPPT.
The cleaning cycles shall be increased based on the results of a soiling study that adjusts the cleaning needs to each season.
Cables should have a suitable labelling and should be protected from UV.
A weather station, or at least an irradiation sensor on the module plane, shall be installed so that the performance of the system can be properly determined